Tools

DECIPHER-ing pathological genomic imbalances with DECIPHER

At the opposite site of DGV (the Database of Genomic Variants, which contains only not pathogenic variations), there is DECIPHER, a useful database to retrieve pathogenic and plausibly pathogenic structural variations in humans. Completely free DECIPHER is an open-source database which contains data about a large amount of submicroscopic structural DNA variations (microdeletions, microduplications and other

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GATK

GATK: the Genome Analysis Toolkit The Genome Analysis Toolkit or more simply, GATK, is a software which is widely used to analyze high throughput sequencing data. GATK has been developed by the Data Science and Data Engineering group working at the Broad Institute. This specialized toolkit provides users with a broad selection tools and to focus on variant discovery, genotyping and data quality

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CNVs databases

STORING IMBALANCES Due to the amount and complexity of information relating to Copy Number Variations (CNVs), the scientific community felt the need to organize all available data, and future submissions, into open-source online repositories. Luckily, some of these resources are reciprocally synchronized, so that conflicting information is reduced to the minimum. The most important CNVs

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ClinVar or HGMD?

Which one is the best database? Genetic testing remains the most complex and difficult among all laboratory tests, both from the technical and the medical point of view. Since an excellent bioinformatic pipeline is fundamental to produce good data for the geneticist and because several bioinformatic tools are available today, it is necessary to choose well when establishing standard

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MLPA: 10 questions and answers

MLPA: Q&A MLPA is acronym for Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification, which is a special molecular technique based on PCR. It is used to scan large deletions/duplications/multiplications which are not detectable by standard sequencing (either NGS or Sanger). The alternative to this technique is the qPCR (quantitative PCR). Is it necessary to always perform MLPA? No, it isn’t always indicated. Multiplex

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Polyphen/Polyphen-2

A tool to predict the effect of missense variants Polyphen, now available in its version Polyphen-2, predicts the impact of a missense variant (also referred to as nsSNP: non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism) based on (1) protein sequence (2) phylogenetic information and (3) structural information. So Polyphen is able to do the so called functional annotation of missense variants.

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dbVar: understanding structural variations

Besides DGV, DGVa and DECIPHER, there is another database that lists structural DNA variations: it’s dbVar, which we expect to be the most comprehensive one, based on its illustrious trademark: NCBI. What is a structural variation? Before going on, we just want to recall here that a genomic structural variation or variant is usually defined

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The DGV database: non-pathological structural variations in humans

There is an online database of which aim is to collect all DNA structural variations which can be considered as normal polymorphisms in humans (DGV – Database of Genomic Variants). The consultation of this database is particularly important because it allows to know whether a particular CNV (copy number variation) can be pathogenic or not.

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