Andrea Breda Klobus

WES in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

Newborns in NICU Critically ill newborns are usually admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) departments. Because a critically ill newborn is often affected by a genetic disorder, trials have been made to measure the effectiveness and usefulness of rapid (or ultra-rapid) genetic testing in this special set of patients. Certain studies have also

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WES in FUO

What is FUO? FUO is acronym for Fever of Unknown Origin. FUO has been first defined by Petersdorf and Beeson in 1961 as a fever lasting more than 3 weeks, with a temperature over 38.3 °C on several occasions. FUO still represents a challlenge for Diagnostics in several clinical cases. Apart from infective, autoimmune and

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Autism: genetic or not genetic?

Definition of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Autism is a neurodevelopmental disease, characterized by early childhood-onset impairments in communication and social interaction alongside restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. In 2013, according to the criteria from the 5th version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), the American Psychiatric Association has

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Genetic stroke syndromes

Panel testing recommended at Breda Genetics for this condition: Pan272 – Genetic stroke syndromes (ACTA2, ACVRL1, ADA2, APP, COL3A1, COL4A1, CST3, ENG, EPHB4, FBN1, GDF2, GLA, GUCY1A3, HBB, HTRA1, ITM2B, NOTCH3, RASA1, RNF213, SMAD2, SMAD3, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TREX1, mtDNA) Summary Cerebral stroke is a major cause or morbity and moratility. In most cases,

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Expanded Carrier Screening

Every person is a carrier of AR/XLR mutations Pathogenic mutations causing autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked recessive (XLR) genetic diseases are rare, but each of us is a healthy carrier of at least 5 AR/XLR conditions, according to estimates. So, we are all potentially exposed to specific reproductive risks for rare disorders, although such risks

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Cerebral cavernous malformations

Summary Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations in the brain and spinal cord. They are formed by closely clustered, enlarged capillary channels (so called “caverns”) consituted by a single layer of endothelium, which is abnrormally thin. The vessels are filled with slow-moving or stagnant blood that is usually clotted or in a state of

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Deep intronic mutations

Definition Deep intronic variants are those genetic variants  falling more than 100bp away from the closest exon-intron boundary. Of course, like all other type of variants, deep intronic variants may be be pathogenic, but their pathogenicity is hard to be confirmed. They can be considered as the ‘dark side’ of the mutational spectrum of a

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Pseudogenes

Definition In most cases, a pseudogene can be considered as the ancient extra copy of a preexisting protein-coding gene (called parental gene), that undergoes a process of pseudogenization by disruption to its sequence due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. The result is usually a ‘nonfunctional gene’ with high sequence homology with the parental gene.  

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VUS in WES

How many genetic variants do we have? When sequencing the entire human genome (whole genome sequencing), the average number of variants detected in one person is about 4 million. From whole-exome sequencing, the number of genetic variants detected is very high too. So, how do we guess the clinical significance of all those variants? The

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What’s the right price for whole exome sequencing?

What’s the right price of whole exome sequencing? This is one of the most frequent questions I am being asked and one of the most searched on the internet: what’s the price of whole exome sequencing (which consists of the sequencing of all human genes)? Of note, whole exome sequencing does not consist in the

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Phenotype expansion in rare disorders

What is phenotype expansion? By doing genetic testing through high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing, more specifically by doing whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing, patients affected by a well defined syndrome may be found to harbor a pathogenic mutation in a gene previously known to be associated with a different phenotype. Similarly, a patient with

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Turnaround time in genetic testing for rare disorders

Genetic testing: a complex workflow. Patients and physicians sometimes complain about the turnaround time (TAT) of genetic testing. Now, it should be mentioned that genetic testing is technically complex, requiring several steps of sample manipulation. Especially for what concerns genetic testing for rare disorders, there’s also a final step, maybe the most important one, which

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Mental retardation: panel or whole exome sequencing?

Mental retardation: an avalanche of genes. To start with isolated mental retardation (i.e. patients which are affected by mental retardation only, with no other clinical signs or very mild additional traits) to finish with highly syndromic cognitive delay in patients who shows several malformations and/or metabolic imbalances, mental retardation is possibly the largest chapter in

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Bed files in Next Generation Sequencing

What are the bed files? If you are interested, or directly involved, in Next Generation Sequencing applications for research or clinical diagnostics, especially in whole exome sequencing or targeted multigene panel testing, you’ve certainly heard of the so-called bed files. If you haven’t heard of them yet, you’ll soon need to learn what they are

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Non-coding exons in the diagnosis of rare disorders

Coding and non-coding exons in the genes structure Genes are the coding part of the genome and represent only 2% of the entire DNA chain. Despite this, the vast majority of pathogenic mutations causing rare disorders (up to 85%) falls right in the genes.  Genes have a well-defined structure: they are made up of exons,

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Amino acid codes (symbols)

Amino acids codes (symbols) are listed below (1 and 3 letters codes). Approved nomenclature for reports is the 3 letters code: Amino acid Code (1 letter) Code (3 letters) (official) Alanine A Ala Arginine R Arg Asparagine N Asn Aspartic Acid D Asp Cysteine C Cys Glutamic Acid E Glu Glutamine Q Gln Glicine G

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SIMMENS 2019 – Oct 2019, Turin (Italy)

Where: Turin (Italy)   When: 22-25 October 2019   Breda Genetics Booth: #19 Torino, prima Capitale, città universitaria e dell’innovazione industriale, è internazionalmente nota per la sua eleganza architettonica e vividezza culturale. Storica sede di gloriose società sportive e già città olimpica nel 2006, Torino diventerà anche capitale del tennis mondiale ospitando le prossime “ATP finals” dal 2021

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